Palm, Risa, Toby Bolsen, and Justin Kingsland. Forthcoming. “The Effect of Frames on COVID-19 Vaccine Resistance.” (Frontiers of Political Science). Dataset and replication file:  

Thornton, Judd and Toby Bolsen. Forthcoming. “Candidate and Party Affective Polarization in U.S. Presidential Elections: The Person-Negativity Bias?” (Electoral Studies).

Kevin Mullinix, Toby Bolsen, and Robert Norris. Forthcoming. “The Feedback Effects of Controversial Police Use of Force.” Political Behavior. (paper)

Bayes, Robin, Toby Bolsen, and James N. Druckman. Forthcoming. “An Agenda for Climate Change Research and Public Opinion: The Role of Consensus Messaging and Beyond.”  Environmental Communication.

Levy, Jeremy, Robin Bayes, Toby Bolsen, and James, N. Druckman. Forthcoming. “Science and the Politics of Misinformation.” In Handbook of Media, Misinformation & Populism. Howard Tumber and Silvio Waisbord (Eds.). (paper)

Palm, Risa, Toby Bolsen, and Justin Kingsland. 2020. “‘Don’t Tell Me What to Do’: Resistance to Climate Change Messages that Suggest Behavior Change.” Weather, Climate & Society 12(4): 827–835. Data and replication file:, Harvard Dataverse.

Bolsen, Toby, Risa Palm, and Justin Kingsland.  2020. “Framing the Origins of Covid-19” Science Communication 42(5): 562-585. (paper); Data and replication file:, Harvard Dataverse.

LaPlant, Kristina, Bailey Fairbanks and Toby Bolsen. 2020. “Locked in a Box: How Activist Art Affects Opinions About Solitary Confinement.” New Political Science Journal 42(3): 289–312. (paper)

Palm, Risa, and Toby Bolsen. Climate Change and Sea Level Rise in South Florida: The View of Coastal Residents.  2020. Springer Press.

Bolsen, Toby, Risa Palm, and Justin T. Kingsland. 2019. “The Impact of Message Source on the Effectiveness of Communications about Climate Change.”Science Communication 41(4): 467–487. (paper). Data and replication file:, Harvard Dataverse.

Bolsen, Toby, Risa Palm, and Justin Kingsland. 2019. “Counteracting Climate Science Politicization with Effective Frames and Imagery.” Science Communication 41(2): 147–170. (paper). Dataset and replication file:, Harvard Dataverse.

Bolsen, Toby and Risa Palm. 2019. “Motivated Reasoning and Political Decision Making.” In Oxford Encyclopedia of Political Decision-Making. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.013.923 (paper)

Bolsen, Toby, Bailey Fairbanks, Eduardo Aviles, Justin Kingsland, Kristina LaPlant, Reagan Griggs-Pritchett, Matt Montgomery, and Natalie Rogol. 2019. “Merging Undergraduate Teaching, Graduate Training, and Producing Research: Lessons from Three Collaborative Experiments.” PS: Political Science & Politics 5(2): 117–122. (paper)

Shapiro, Matt and Toby Bolsen. 2019. “Transboundary Air Pollution in South Korea: An Analysis of Media Frames and Public Attitudes and Behaviors.” East Asian Community Review 1(3): 107–126.

Shapiro, Matt, and Toby Bolsen. 2019. “Korean Perceptions of Transboundary Air Pollution and Domestic Coal Development: Two Framing Experiments.” Energy Policy, 126(1): 333-342. (paper)

Bolsen, Toby, and James N. Druckman. 2018. “Validating Conspiracy Beliefs and Effectively Communicating Scientific Consensus.” Weather, Climate, & Society, 10(July): 453-458. (paper)

Bolsen, Toby, Justin Kingsland, and Risa Palm. 2018. “The Impact of Frames Highlighting Coastal Flooding in the U.S.A. on Climate Change Beliefs.”  Climatic Change, 147(1-2): 359-368. (paper)

Bolsen, Toby, and James N. Druckman. 2018. “Do Partisanship and Politicization Undermine the Impact of a Scientific Consensus Message about Climate Change. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 21(3): 389-402. (paper) (appendix)

Bolsen, Toby, and Matt Shapiro. 2018.  “The U.S. News Media, Polarization on Climate Change, and Pathways to Effective Communication.” Environmental Communication, 12(2): 149-163.(pdf)

Shapiro, Matt, Toby Bolsen, and Anna Fleming. 2018. “Communicating about Clean Energy and Efficiency Policies.” Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Climate Science. (paper)

Bolsen, Toby, and Matt Shapiro. 2017. “Strategic Framing and Persuasive Messaging to Influence Climate Change Perceptions and Decisions.” Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication. (pdf)

Zabinski, Anna, and Toby Bolsen. 2017. “Party Identity and the Evaluation of Political Candidates.” DISCOVERY: Georgia State Honors College Undergraduate Research. Volume 4, Article 1. (pdf)

Bolsen, Toby. 2017. “News and Views: Partisans’ Science Interests.” Nature Human Behavior 1(3): 0076.  (pdf)

Bolsen, Toby, James N. Druckman, and Fay Lomax Cook. 2016. “Reaction: Public Policy Challenges to Scientific Innovation on Solar Energy.” Chem 1(4): 515–518. (pdf)

Bolsen, Toby, Michael Evans, and Anna Fleming.  2016. “Comparing the Effectiveness of Online and Face-to-Face Approaches to Teaching Introduction to American Government.” 2016. Journal of Political Science Education 12(3): 302–317. (pdf)

^Bolsen, Toby, and James N. Druckman. “Counteracting the Politicization of Science.” 2015. Journal of Communication 65(5): 745–769. (pdf) (appendix)

^Frank Prize Finalist for Best Paper in Public Interest Communications ($1,500)

Bolsen, Toby, James N. Druckman, and Fay Lomax Cook. 2015. “Citizens’, Scientists’, and Policy Advisors’ Beliefs about Global Warming.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 658(1): 271–295. (pdf)

Bolsen, Toby, James N. Druckman, and Fay Lomax Cook. 2014. “Communication and Collective Actions: A Survey Experiment on Motivating Energy Conservation in the U.S.”  Journal of Experimental Political Science 1(1): 24-38. (pdf)

*Bolsen, Toby, James N. Druckman, and Fay Lomax Cook. 2014. “The Influence of Partisan Motivated Reasoning on Public Opinion.” Political Behavior 36 (2): 235-262. (pdf)

*Franklin L. Burdette / Pi Sigma Alpha Best Paper Award for the best overall paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, 2013.

Bolsen, Toby, James N. Druckman, and Fay Lomax Cook. 2014. “How Frames Can Stunt Support for Scientific Adaptations: Politicization and the Status Quo Bias.” Public Opinion Quarterly 78 (1): 1-26. (pdf)

Bolsen, Toby, Paul J. Ferraro, and Juan Jose Miranda.  2014.  “Are Voters More Likely to Contribute to Other Public Goods? Evidence from a Large-Scale Randomized Policy Experiment.”  American Journal of Political Science 58 (1): 17-30.(pdf)

Bolsen, Toby, Thomas Leeper, and Matt Shapiro. 2014. “Doing What Others Do: Norms, Science, and Collective Action on Climate Change.” American Politics Research 42 (1): 65-89. (pdf)

Bolsen, Toby, and Judd Thornton. 2014. “Overlapping Confidence Intervals and Null Hypothesis Testing.” 2014. Newsletter of the APSA Experimental Section 4(1): 12-16. (pdf)

Bolsen, Toby, and Thomas Leeper. 2013. “Self Interest and Attention to News among Issue Publics.”  Political Communication 30 (3): 329-348. (pdf)

Bolsen, Toby. 2013. “A Light Bulb Goes On: Norms, Rhetoric, and Actions for the Public Good.” Political Behavior 35 (1): 1-20. (pdf)

Bolsen, Toby. 2011.  “The Construction of News: Energy Crises, Advocacy Messages, and Frames toward Conservation.” International Journal of Press / Politics 16 (2): 143-162. (pdf)

^Druckman, James N., and Toby Bolsen. 2011.  “Framing, Motivated Reasoning, and Opinions about Emergent Technologies.”  Journal of Communication 61: 659-688. (pdf)

^Best Paper presented on a Political Psychology panel at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, 2011.

Bolsen, Toby. 2011. “Framing Effects and Political Behavior.” In Larry Kuznar, Allison Astorino-Courtois, and Sarah Canna (Eds), From the Mind to the Feet: Assessing the Intent-to-Action Dynamic. Air University Press, Maxwell AFB, Al, pp. 141-160. (pdf)

Druckman, James N., and Toby Bolsen. 2011.  “How Scientific Evidence Links Attitudes to Behaviors.” In David Dana (Ed.) The Nanotechnology Challenge: Creating Law and Legal Institutions for Uncertain Risks. New York: NY. Cambridge University Press, pp. 84-102.  (pdf)

Bolsen, Toby, and Fay Lomax Cook. 2008. “Public Opinion on Energy Policy, 1974 – 2006.” Public Opinion Quarterly 72 (2): 364-388. (pdf)

Jerit, Jennifer, Jason Barabas, and Toby Bolsen 2006. “Citizens, Knowledge, and the Information Environment.” American Journal of Political Science 50 (2): 266-282. (pdf)